What is the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses?

Diseases of the paranasal sinuses are common diseases and have many different types. Treatment methods are also very diverse, including the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. Paranasal sinus anatomy is often performed in patients with chronic sinusitis or recurrent sinusitis. In addition, it is also indicated in other diseases of the nose and sinuses.

The effectiveness of anatomy depends on the individual patient and the specific disease condition. So what is paranasal sinus anatomy? What types are there? What diseases is it used to treat? And what complications can occur after anatomy? The following article will provide you with the necessary information about paranasal sinus anatomy.

What is the paranasal sinus?

The sinuses are hollow cavities located in the human skull. These sinuses are located around the nose, next to the eyes, and in the front part of the face. These sinuses make the human skull lighter. They produce mucus that provides moisture to the nasal passages. Mucus creates a protective layer against agents such as pollutants, dust, and bacteria.

The sinuses are lined by a mucosal layer made up of cells with very small hairs. These feathers help push the mucus in the sinuses out through the sinus openings, into the nasal passages, and finally down the throat.

There are four pairs of paranasal sinuses: the maxillary sinus, frontal sinus, ethmoid sinus, and sphenoid sinus. Normally, the sinuses are empty and airy, containing circulating air that is responsible for sound resonance, moistening the nasal mucosa, heating the air, and balancing and lightening the facial bones.

What is paranasal sinus anatomy?

Paranasal sinus anatomy is anatomy that affects the nasal structures of the sinuses with different purposes depending on specific diseases. The most common goal of anatomy is to open the sinuses and clear the obstruction in patients with sinusitis. It also has other purposes, such as removing tumors in the nasal cavity.

Doctors will often use other treatments before opting for anatomy. After those treatments fail, rhinoplasty is performed. Going through anatomy can be a little uncomfortable. But this is usually short anatomy with few complications.

Subjects needing paranasal sinus anatomy

The most common goal of paranasal sinus anatomy is to remove the obstruction that is causing the drainage of the sinuses. Also, remove diseased tissue. This may include the removal of pathological mucosa, nasal polyps, benign or malignant tumors, and more. A person may need anatomy to address a variety of problems.

Among the types of paranasal sinus anatomy, endoscopic sinus anatomy is performed the most. Some of the most common indications for endoscopic sinus anatomy are:

  • Chronic sinusitis unresponsive to medical treatment (drug therapy)

  • Recurrent sinusitis

  • Nasal polyps

  • Killian Polyps

  • Sinus mucus tumor

  • Some types of sinus tumors

  • Surgical treatment of posterior nasal stenosis

  • Remove a foreign body from the nose and sinuses

  • Treatment of nosebleeds 

Types of paranasal sinus anatomy

The most common type of paranasal sinus anatomy is endoscopic sinus anatomy. Although endoscopic sinus anatomy is the current main method for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the method of open sinus anatomy still plays a certain role. Some of the surgical methods are listed below: 

Endoscopic sinus anatomy

This anatomy is done with an endoscope with a camera. During anatomy, the endoscope and surgical instruments will be inserted into the nose. The surgeon will use these tools to remove damaged tissue and causes of sinus obstruction. At the same time, clean up stagnant substances, fungi, or polyps ... in the sinus cavity.

The whole anatomy is done inside the nose, so there will be no external scars. It can sometimes cause swelling in the face around the eyes and nose, but it usually subsides quickly.

Patients who have this anatomy usually experience a little discomfort for a short period. Endoscopic sinus anatomy can also be performed on an outpatient basis.

Nasal sinus anatomy with pictures

Endoscopic anatomy under the guidance of imaging is anatomy applied to cases of complicated sinus pathology or previous anatomy of the nose and sinuses.

In addition to using an endoscope, this type of anatomy also uses a three-dimensional mapping system. The purpose is to show the surgeon where the instrument is in the nasopharynx. This process is done using Ctscan and infrared signals.

Using images, surgeons can access the sinuses even in difficult cases. Simultaneously remove and clear the blockage precisely.

Angioplasty with a balloon

One method that has been developed to replace endoscopic sinus anatomy in recent times is balloon dilation. This method uses a balloon catheter to dilate the natural openings of the sinuses.

There are many reports of improvement in patients' symptoms and width of the sinus opening. However, the actual effect is still controversial.

Caldwell-Luc anatomy

This is a type of open sinus anatomy. Performed when there is a disease related to the maxillary sinus (sinus located just below the eye socket). This anatomy is less common and more invasive than laparoscopic anatomy. It is usually done when there is a tumor in the maxillary sinus.

The purpose of this anatomy is to remove the tumor and improve sinus drainage. anatomy starts from a short incision at the gingival sulcus, dissecting upwards into the maxillary sinus. Then remove the pathological tissue and clean the maxillary sinus. anatomy can be performed under sedation or local anesthesia.

Post-anatomy recovery

Recovery time depends on the specific type of anatomy. It also depends on other factors such as the age or general condition of the individual patient. However, many people experience little discomfort after paranasal sinus anatomy. Most patients can go home the same day of anatomy or 1 day later. After anatomy, the patient may have the following feelings: Mild discomfort, fatigue, nasal congestion, pain in the surgical area, and a little nosebleed.

You should follow your doctor's instructions for post-operative care and take all prescribed medications. You may need to change your daily routine for the first 2 weeks after anatomy. Postoperative care is also important in the effectiveness of the treatment. 

Medications commonly prescribed after anatomy include saline nasal spray, anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, and pain relievers. The follow-up visit is usually after a week to examine the incision and clean in some cases.

There are positive reports on the short- and long-term effectiveness of endoscopic sinus anatomy. In a recent report, quality of life improved in 85% of patients. The effectiveness of the actual anatomy depends on many other factors.

Conclusion

Paranasal sinus anatomy is often indicated for chronic sinusitis and recurrent sinusitis. Also indicated for many other diseases. Endoscopic sinus anatomy is the most common type of anatomy with few complications and a short recovery time. The effectiveness of treatment depends on many different factors. Postoperative care also plays a very important role in treatment. 


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